Francisco Alejandro Arganis Ramírez#

  • Número de cuenta: 108003620

1. Debian 11#

Información del sistema#

Información de la máquina virtual con Debian 11
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ uname -a
Linux vm-debian-11 5.10.0-11-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 5.10.92-1 (2022-01-18) x86_64 GNU/Linux
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ cat /etc/os-release
PRETTY_NAME="Debian GNU/Linux 11 (bullseye)"
NAME="Debian GNU/Linux"
VERSION_ID="11"
VERSION="11 (bullseye)"
VERSION_CODENAME=bullseye
ID=debian
HOME_URL="https://www.debian.org/"
SUPPORT_URL="https://www.debian.org/support"
BUG_REPORT_URL="https://bugs.debian.org/"
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ cat /etc/debian_version /etc/redhat-release
11.2
cat: /etc/redhat-release: No such file or directory
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ lsmod
Module                  Size  Used by
vboxvideo              49152  0
rfkill                 28672  3
ghash_clmulni_intel    16384  0
aesni_intel           368640  0
libaes                 16384  1 aesni_intel
crypto_simd            16384  1 aesni_intel
cryptd                 24576  2 crypto_simd,ghash_clmulni_intel
glue_helper            16384  1 aesni_intel
snd_intel8x0           49152  4
joydev                 28672  0
snd_ac97_codec        180224  1 snd_intel8x0
ac97_bus               16384  1 snd_ac97_codec
snd_pcm               135168  3 snd_intel8x0,snd_ac97_codec
pcspkr                 16384  0
snd_timer              49152  2 snd_pcm
serio_raw              20480  0
snd                   110592  10 snd_intel8x0,snd_timer,snd_ac97_codec,snd_pcm
sg                     36864  0
soundcore              16384  1 snd
evdev                  28672  10
ac                     16384  0
vboxguest             413696  6
nfnetlink              16384  0
msr                    16384  0
fuse                  167936  3
configfs               57344  1
ip_tables              32768  0
x_tables               53248  1 ip_tables
autofs4                53248  2
ext4                  921600  1
crc16                  16384  1 ext4
mbcache                16384  1 ext4
jbd2                  151552  1 ext4
crc32c_generic         16384  0
hid_generic            16384  0
usbhid                 65536  0
hid                   147456  2 usbhid,hid_generic
sd_mod                 61440  3
t10_pi                 16384  1 sd_mod
crc_t10dif             20480  1 t10_pi
crct10dif_generic      16384  0
sr_mod                 28672  0
cdrom                  73728  1 sr_mod
ata_generic            16384  0
vmwgfx                376832  3
ttm                   114688  2 vmwgfx,vboxvideo
drm_kms_helper        278528  2 vmwgfx,vboxvideo
ahci                   40960  2
cec                    61440  1 drm_kms_helper
ohci_pci               20480  0
libahci                45056  1 ahci
ehci_pci               20480  0
ata_piix               36864  0
ohci_hcd               61440  1 ohci_pci
ehci_hcd               98304  1 ehci_pci
drm                   618496  7 vmwgfx,drm_kms_helper,vboxvideo,ttm
libata                290816  4 ata_piix,libahci,ahci,ata_generic
usbcore               323584  5 ohci_hcd,ehci_pci,usbhid,ehci_hcd,ohci_pci
crct10dif_pclmul       16384  1
crct10dif_common       16384  3 crct10dif_generic,crc_t10dif,crct10dif_pclmul
scsi_mod              262144  4 sd_mod,libata,sg,sr_mod
crc32_pclmul           16384  0
crc32c_intel           24576  2
e1000                 155648  0
psmouse               184320  0
i2c_piix4              28672  0
usb_common             16384  3 ohci_hcd,usbcore,ehci_hcd
battery                20480  0
video                  53248  0
button                 24576  0
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ ps afx
    PID TTY      STAT   TIME COMMAND
      2 ?        S      0:00 [kthreadd]
      3 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [rcu_gp]
      4 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [rcu_par_gp]
      6 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kworker/0:0H-events_highpri]
      8 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [mm_percpu_wq]
      9 ?        S      0:00  \_ [rcu_tasks_rude_]
     10 ?        S      0:00  \_ [rcu_tasks_trace]
     11 ?        S      0:00  \_ [ksoftirqd/0]
     12 ?        I      0:00  \_ [rcu_sched]
     13 ?        S      0:00  \_ [migration/0]
     15 ?        S      0:00  \_ [cpuhp/0]
     17 ?        S      0:00  \_ [kdevtmpfs]
     18 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [netns]
     19 ?        S      0:00  \_ [kauditd]
     20 ?        S      0:00  \_ [khungtaskd]
     21 ?        S      0:00  \_ [oom_reaper]
     22 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [writeback]
     23 ?        S      0:00  \_ [kcompactd0]
     24 ?        SN     0:00  \_ [ksmd]
     25 ?        SN     0:00  \_ [khugepaged]
     43 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kintegrityd]
     44 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kblockd]
     45 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [blkcg_punt_bio]
     46 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [edac-poller]
     47 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [devfreq_wq]
     48 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kworker/0:1H-kblockd]
     50 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/0:2-ata_sff]
     51 ?        S      0:00  \_ [kswapd0]
     52 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kthrotld]
     53 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [acpi_thermal_pm]
     54 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [ipv6_addrconf]
     55 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/u2:1-ext4-rsv-conversion]
     64 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kstrp]
     67 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [zswap-shrink]
     68 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kworker/u3:0]
    106 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [ata_sff]
    107 ?        S      0:00  \_ [scsi_eh_0]
    108 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [scsi_tmf_0]
    109 ?        S      0:00  \_ [scsi_eh_1]
    110 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [scsi_tmf_1]
    111 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/u2:2-events_unbound]
    112 ?        S      0:00  \_ [scsi_eh_2]
    113 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [scsi_tmf_2]
    114 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/u2:3-flush-8:0]
    115 ?        S      0:00  \_ [irq/18-vmwgfx]
    116 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [ttm_swap]
    117 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc0]
    118 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc1]
    119 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc2]
    120 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc3]
    121 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc4]
    122 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc5]
    123 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc6]
    124 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc7]
    128 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/0:4-events]
    167 ?        S      0:00  \_ [jbd2/sda1-8]
    168 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [ext4-rsv-conver]
    276 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [iprt-VBoxWQueue]
    297 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [cryptd]
   2516 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/0:0-ata_sff]
      1 ?        Ss     0:02 /sbin/init
    205 ?        Ss     0:00 /lib/systemd/systemd-journald
    237 ?        Ss     0:00 /lib/systemd/systemd-udevd
    402 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/accounts-daemon
    403 ?        Ss     0:00 avahi-daemon: running [vm-debian-11.local]
    420 ?        S      0:00  \_ avahi-daemon: chroot helper
    404 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/sbin/cron -f
    405 ?        Ss     0:02 /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --nofork --nopidfile --systemd-activation --syslog-only
    406 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon
    408 ?        Ssl    0:03 /usr/libexec/polkitd --no-debug
    409 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/sbin/rsyslogd -n -iNONE
    410 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/switcheroo-control
    411 ?        Ss     0:00 /lib/systemd/systemd-logind
    412 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/udisks2/udisksd
    414 ?        Ss     0:00 /sbin/wpa_supplicant -u -s -O /run/wpa_supplicant
    478 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/sbin/ModemManager
    500 ?        Ssl    0:00 /sbin/dhclient -4 -v -i -pf /run/dhclient.enp0s8.pid -lf /var/lib/dhcp/dhclient.enp0s8.leases -I -df /var/lib/dhcp/dhclient6.enp0s8.leases enp0s8
    572 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/bin/python3 /usr/share/unattended-upgrades/unattended-upgrade-shutdown --wait-for-signal
    574 ?        Ss     0:00 sshd: /usr/sbin/sshd -D [listener] 0 of 10-100 startups
    691 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/sbin/gdm3
   1089 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ gdm-session-worker [pam/gdm-password]
   1133 tty2     Ssl+   0:00      \_ /usr/libexec/gdm-wayland-session /usr/bin/gnome-session
   1138 tty2     Sl+    0:00          \_ /usr/libexec/gnome-session-binary --systemd
    694 ?        Sl     0:00 /usr/sbin/VBoxService --pidfile /var/run/vboxadd-service.sh
    740 ?        SNsl   0:00 /usr/libexec/rtkit-daemon
    833 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/upowerd
    896 ?        Ssl    0:25 /usr/libexec/packagekitd
   1045 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/colord
   1102 ?        Ss     0:00 /lib/systemd/systemd --user
   1103 ?        S      0:00  \_ (sd-pam)
   1122 ?        S<sl   0:00  \_ /usr/bin/pipewire
   1147 ?        S<l    0:00  |   \_ /usr/bin/pipewire-media-session
   1123 ?        S<sl   0:00  \_ /usr/bin/pulseaudio --daemonize=no --log-target=journal
   1125 ?        SNsl   0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/tracker-miner-fs
   1135 ?        Ss     0:01  \_ /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --session --address=systemd: --nofork --nopidfile --systemd-activation --syslog-only
   1195 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gnome-session-ctl --monitor
   1196 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfsd
   2213 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/libexec/gvfsd-trash --spawner :1.8 /org/gtk/gvfs/exec_spaw/0
   2288 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/libexec/gvfsd-burn --spawner :1.8 /org/gtk/gvfs/exec_spaw/1
   1197 ?        Ss     0:00  \_ ssh-agent -D -a /run/user/1000/openssh_agent
   1199 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gnome-session-binary --systemd-service --session=gnome
   1239 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/libexec/at-spi-bus-launcher --launch-immediately
   1247 ?        S      0:00  |   |   \_ /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --config-file=/usr/share/defaults/at-spi2/accessibility.conf --nofork --print-address 3
   1360 ?        Sl     0:05  |   \_ /usr/bin/gnome-software --gapplication-service
   1364 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/libexec/evolution-data-server/evolution-alarm-notify
   1376 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-disk-utility-notify
   1205 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfsd-fuse /run/user/1000/gvfs -f
   1218 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-udisks2-volume-monitor
   1230 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-afc-volume-monitor
   1240 ?        Ssl    0:54  \_ /usr/bin/gnome-shell
   1277 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/bin/Xwayland :0 -rootless -noreset -accessx -core -auth /run/user/1000/.mutter-Xwaylandauth.HYXBI1 -listen 4 -listen 5 -displayfd 6 -listen 7
   1543 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ ibus-daemon --panel disable -r --xim
   1558 ?        Sl     0:00  |       \_ /usr/libexec/ibus-memconf
   1559 ?        Sl     0:02  |       \_ /usr/libexec/ibus-extension-gtk3
   1609 ?        Sl     0:00  |       \_ /usr/libexec/ibus-engine-simple
   1254 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-goa-volume-monitor
   1258 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/goa-daemon
   1265 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/goa-identity-service
   1278 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-gphoto2-volume-monitor
   1282 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-mtp-volume-monitor
   1307 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/xdg-permission-store
   1311 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gnome-shell-calendar-server
   1318 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/evolution-source-registry
   1323 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/dconf-service
   1330 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/evolution-calendar-factory
   1343 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/evolution-addressbook-factory
   1344 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/bin/gjs /usr/share/gnome-shell/org.gnome.Shell.Notifications
   1345 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/at-spi2-registryd --use-gnome-session
   1352 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-a11y-settings
   1354 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-color
   1355 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-datetime
   1358 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-housekeeping
   1365 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-keyboard
   1370 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-media-keys
   1374 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-power
   1378 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-print-notifications
   1384 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-rfkill
   1388 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-screensaver-proxy
   1395 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-sharing
   1399 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-smartcard
   1407 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-sound
   1413 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-usb-protection
   1420 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-wacom
   1440 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-printer
   1441 ?        S      0:00  \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --clipboard
   1446 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --clipboard
   1484 ?        S      0:00  \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --seamless
   1485 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --seamless
   1491 ?        S      0:00  \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --draganddrop
   1495 ?        Sl     0:02  |   \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --draganddrop
   1504 ?        S      0:00  \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --vmsvga
   1505 ?        S      0:00  |   \_ [VBoxDRMClient]
   1549 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-xsettings
   1563 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/ibus-x11 --kill-daemon
   1566 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/ibus-portal
   2030 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfsd-metadata
   2382 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/bin/gnome-calendar --gapplication-service
   2388 ?        Ssl    0:01  \_ /usr/libexec/gnome-terminal-server
   2491 pts/0    Ss     0:00      \_ bash
   2538 pts/0    R+     0:00          \_ ps afx
   1129 ?        Sl     0:00 /usr/bin/gnome-keyring-daemon --daemonize --login
   1631 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/fwupd/fwupd
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ hostname -I
10.0.2.15 192.168.56.101 
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ ip addr
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: enp0s3: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 08:00:27:a7:0a:e5 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 10.0.2.15/24 brd 10.0.2.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute enp0s3
       valid_lft 85729sec preferred_lft 85729sec
    inet6 fe80::a00:27ff:fea7:ae5/64 scope link noprefixroute 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: enp0s8: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 08:00:27:e1:d5:5a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.56.101/24 brd 192.168.56.255 scope global dynamic enp0s8
       valid_lft 464sec preferred_lft 464sec
    inet6 fe80::a00:27ff:fee1:d55a/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ ip route show
default via 10.0.2.2 dev enp0s3 proto dhcp metric 100 
10.0.2.0/24 dev enp0s3 proto kernel scope link src 10.0.2.15 metric 100 
169.254.0.0/16 dev enp0s8 scope link metric 1000 
192.168.56.0/24 dev enp0s8 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.56.101 
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ cat /etc/resolv.conf
# Generated by NetworkManager
search domain.local
nameserver 10.0.2.3
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ netstat -ntulp
(Not all processes could be identified, non-owned process info
 will not be shown, you would have to be root to see it all.)
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
tcp6       0      0 :::22                   :::*                    LISTEN      -                   
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:5353            0.0.0.0:*                           -                   
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:68              0.0.0.0:*                           -                   
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:44232           0.0.0.0:*                           -                   
udp6       0      0 :::5353                 :::*                                -                   
udp6       0      0 :::47985                :::*                                -                   
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ ping -c 4 1.1.1.1
PING 1.1.1.1 (1.1.1.1): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 1.1.1.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=98.306 ms
64 bytes from 1.1.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=38.760 ms
64 bytes from 1.1.1.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=39.314 ms
64 bytes from 1.1.1.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=34.645 ms
--- 1.1.1.1 ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 34.645/52.756/98.306/26.360 ms
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ dig example.com.

; <<>> DiG 9.16.22-Debian <<>> example.com.
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 16908
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 65494
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;example.com.           IN  A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
example.com.        52952   IN  A   93.184.216.34

;; Query time: 28 msec
;; SERVER: 10.0.2.3#53(10.0.2.3)
;; WHEN: Sat Feb 26 13:20:40 CST 2022
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 56

deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ 

Privilegios del usuario normal#

deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ getent passwd ${USER}
deb-francisco-alejandro:x:1000:1000:deb-francisco-alejandro,,,:/home/deb-francisco-alejandro:/bin/bash
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ id
uid=1000(deb-francisco-alejandro) gid=1000(deb-francisco-alejandro) groups=1000(deb-francisco-alejandro),24(cdrom),25(floppy),27(sudo),29(audio),30(dip),44(video),46(plugdev),109(netdev),113(bluetooth),119(scanner),125(wireshark)
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ groups
deb-francisco-alejandro cdrom floppy sudo audio dip video plugdev netdev bluetooth scanner wireshark
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ sudo -l
Matching Defaults entries for deb-francisco-alejandro on vm-debian-11:
    env_reset, mail_badpass,
    secure_path=/usr/local/sbin\:/usr/local/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin\:/sbin\:/bin

User deb-francisco-alejandro may run the following commands on vm-debian-11:
    (ALL : ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ sudo -i
root@vm-debian-11:~# 

Ubicación de las herramientas#

deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ which wireshark tcpdump nmap netcat-openbsd ngrep dsniff wget curl whois dnsutils net-tools iproute2 iptables iptables-persistent tsocks inetutils-ping inetutils-traceroute inetutils-tools ethtool
/usr/bin/wireshark
/usr/bin/tcpdump
/usr/bin/nmap
/usr/bin/ngrep
/usr/bin/wget
/usr/bin/curl
/usr/bin/whois
/usr/bin/tsocks
/usr/bin/inetutils-traceroute
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ whereis wireshark tcpdump nmap netcat-openbsd ngrep dsniff wget curl whois dnsutils net-tools iproute2 iptables iptables-persistent tsocks inetutils-ping inetutils-traceroute inetutils-tools ethtool
wireshark: /usr/bin/wireshark /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/wireshark /etc/wireshark /usr/share/wireshark /usr/share/man/man1/wireshark.1.gz
tcpdump: /usr/bin/tcpdump /usr/share/man/man8/tcpdump.8.gz
nmap: /usr/bin/nmap /usr/share/nmap /usr/share/man/man1/nmap.1.gz
netcat-openbsd:
ngrep: /usr/bin/ngrep /usr/share/man/man8/ngrep.8.gz
dsniff: /usr/sbin/dsniff /usr/share/dsniff /usr/share/man/man8/dsniff.8.gz
wget: /usr/bin/wget /usr/share/man/man1/wget.1.gz /usr/share/info/wget.info.gz
curl: /usr/bin/curl /usr/share/man/man1/curl.1.gz
whois: /usr/bin/whois /usr/share/man/man1/whois.1.gz
dnsutils:
net-tools:
iproute2: /etc/iproute2 /usr/include/iproute2
iptables: /usr/sbin/iptables /etc/iptables /usr/share/iptables /usr/share/man/man8/iptables.8.gz
iptables-persistent:
tsocks: /usr/bin/tsocks /etc/tsocks.conf /usr/share/man/man8/tsocks.8.gz /usr/share/man/man1/tsocks.1.gz
inetutils-ping:
inetutils-traceroute: /usr/bin/inetutils-traceroute /usr/share/man/man1/inetutils-traceroute.1.gz
inetutils-tools:
ethtool: /usr/sbin/ethtool /usr/share/man/man8/ethtool.8.gz
deb-francisco-alejandro@vm-debian-11:~$ 

2. CentOS Stream 8#

Información del sistema#

Información de la máquina virtual con CentOS Stream 8
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ uname -a
Linux localhost.localdomain 4.18.0-365.el8.x86_64 #1 SMP Thu Feb 10 16:11:23 UTC 2022 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ cat /etc/os-release
NAME="CentOS Stream"
VERSION="8"
ID="centos"
ID_LIKE="rhel fedora"
VERSION_ID="8"
PLATFORM_ID="platform:el8"
PRETTY_NAME="CentOS Stream 8"
ANSI_COLOR="0;31"
CPE_NAME="cpe:/o:centos:centos:8"
HOME_URL="https://centos.org/"
BUG_REPORT_URL="https://bugzilla.redhat.com/"
REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT="Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8"
REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT_VERSION="CentOS Stream"
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ cat /etc/debian_version /etc/redhat-release
cat: /etc/debian_version: No such file or directory
CentOS Stream release 8
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ lsmod
Module                  Size  Used by
uinput                 20480  0
vboxvideo              32768  0
drm_vram_helper        20480  1 vboxvideo
drm_ttm_helper         16384  2 drm_vram_helper,vboxvideo
xt_CHECKSUM            16384  1
ipt_MASQUERADE         16384  3
xt_conntrack           16384  1
ipt_REJECT             16384  2
nft_compat             20480  16
nf_nat_tftp            16384  0
nft_objref             16384  1
nf_conntrack_tftp      16384  3 nf_nat_tftp
nft_counter            16384  33
bridge                278528  0
stp                    16384  1 bridge
llc                    16384  2 bridge,stp
nft_fib_inet           16384  1
nft_fib_ipv4           16384  1 nft_fib_inet
nft_fib_ipv6           16384  1 nft_fib_inet
nft_fib                16384  3 nft_fib_ipv6,nft_fib_ipv4,nft_fib_inet
nft_reject_inet        16384  5
nf_reject_ipv4         16384  2 nft_reject_inet,ipt_REJECT
nf_reject_ipv6         16384  1 nft_reject_inet
nft_reject             16384  1 nft_reject_inet
nft_ct                 20480  18
nf_tables_set          49152  20
nft_chain_nat          16384  12
nf_nat                 45056  3 ipt_MASQUERADE,nf_nat_tftp,nft_chain_nat
nf_conntrack          172032  6 xt_conntrack,nf_nat,nf_conntrack_tftp,nft_ct,ipt_MASQUERADE,nf_nat_tftp
nf_defrag_ipv6         20480  1 nf_conntrack
nf_defrag_ipv4         16384  1 nf_conntrack
ip_set                 49152  0
nf_tables             180224  480 nft_ct,nft_compat,nft_reject_inet,nft_fib_ipv6,nft_objref,nft_fib_ipv4,nft_counter,nft_chain_nat,nf_tables_set,nft_reject,nft_fib,nft_fib_inet
nfnetlink              16384  4 nft_compat,nf_tables,ip_set
sunrpc                565248  1
snd_intel8x0           45056  3
snd_ac97_codec        143360  1 snd_intel8x0
ac97_bus               16384  1 snd_ac97_codec
snd_seq                81920  0
snd_seq_device         16384  1 snd_seq
crct10dif_pclmul       16384  1
crc32_pclmul           16384  0
snd_pcm               118784  2 snd_intel8x0,snd_ac97_codec
ghash_clmulni_intel    16384  0
snd_timer              36864  2 snd_seq,snd_pcm
pcspkr                 16384  0
snd                    98304  12 snd_seq,snd_seq_device,snd_intel8x0,snd_timer,snd_ac97_codec,snd_pcm
soundcore              16384  1 snd
joydev                 24576  0
i2c_piix4              24576  0
video                  49152  0
xfs                  1552384  2
libcrc32c              16384  4 nf_conntrack,nf_nat,nf_tables,xfs
sr_mod                 28672  0
sd_mod                 53248  3
cdrom                  65536  1 sr_mod
t10_pi                 16384  1 sd_mod
sg                     40960  0
vmwgfx                372736  3
ata_generic            16384  0
ttm                    73728  3 vmwgfx,drm_vram_helper,drm_ttm_helper
drm_kms_helper        266240  3 vmwgfx,drm_vram_helper,vboxvideo
syscopyarea            16384  1 drm_kms_helper
sysfillrect            16384  1 drm_kms_helper
sysimgblt              16384  1 drm_kms_helper
fb_sys_fops            16384  1 drm_kms_helper
drm                   585728  9 vmwgfx,drm_kms_helper,drm_vram_helper,vboxvideo,drm_ttm_helper,ttm
ahci                   40960  2
ata_piix               36864  0
libahci                40960  1 ahci
libata                262144  4 ata_piix,libahci,ahci,ata_generic
e1000                 151552  0
crc32c_intel           24576  1
serio_raw              16384  0
vboxguest             385024  6
dm_mirror              28672  0
dm_region_hash         20480  1 dm_mirror
dm_log                 20480  2 dm_region_hash,dm_mirror
dm_mod                151552  9 dm_log,dm_mirror
ipmi_devintf           20480  0
ipmi_msghandler       110592  1 ipmi_devintf
fuse                  155648  3
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ ps afx
    PID TTY      STAT   TIME COMMAND
      2 ?        S      0:00 [kthreadd]
      3 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [rcu_gp]
      4 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [rcu_par_gp]
      5 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/0:0-events]
      6 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kworker/0:0H-events_highpri]
      7 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/u2:0-events_unbound]
      8 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [mm_percpu_wq]
      9 ?        S      0:00  \_ [rcu_tasks_rude_]
     10 ?        S      0:00  \_ [rcu_tasks_trace]
     11 ?        S      0:00  \_ [ksoftirqd/0]
     12 ?        R      0:00  \_ [rcu_sched]
     13 ?        S      0:00  \_ [migration/0]
     14 ?        S      0:00  \_ [watchdog/0]
     15 ?        S      0:00  \_ [cpuhp/0]
     17 ?        S      0:00  \_ [kdevtmpfs]
     18 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [netns]
     19 ?        S      0:00  \_ [kauditd]
     20 ?        S      0:00  \_ [khungtaskd]
     21 ?        S      0:00  \_ [oom_reaper]
     22 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [writeback]
     23 ?        S      0:00  \_ [kcompactd0]
     24 ?        SN     0:00  \_ [ksmd]
     25 ?        SN     0:00  \_ [khugepaged]
     26 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [crypto]
     27 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kintegrityd]
     28 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kblockd]
     29 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [blkcg_punt_bio]
     30 ?        R      0:00  \_ [kworker/0:1-events]
     31 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [tpm_dev_wq]
     32 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [md]
     33 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [edac-poller]
     34 ?        S      0:00  \_ [watchdogd]
     35 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kworker/0:1H-kblockd]
     38 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/u2:1-events_unbound]
     60 ?        S      0:02  \_ [kswapd0]
    162 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kthrotld]
    163 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [acpi_thermal_pm]
    164 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kmpath_rdacd]
    165 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kaluad]
    166 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/0:2-cgroup_pidlist_destroy]
    167 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [ipv6_addrconf]
    168 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kstrp]
    300 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/0:3-cgroup_pidlist_destroy]
    440 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [iprt-VBoxWQueue]
    451 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [ata_sff]
    452 ?        S      0:00  \_ [scsi_eh_0]
    453 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [scsi_tmf_0]
    454 ?        S      0:00  \_ [scsi_eh_1]
    455 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [scsi_tmf_1]
    456 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/u2:2-events_unbound]
    458 ?        S      0:00  \_ [scsi_eh_2]
    459 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [scsi_tmf_2]
    466 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [ttm_swap]
    467 ?        S      0:00  \_ [irq/18-vmwgfx]
    469 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc0]
    470 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc1]
    471 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc2]
    472 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc3]
    473 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc4]
    474 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc5]
    475 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc6]
    476 ?        S      0:00  \_ [card0-crtc7]
    548 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kdmflush/253:0]
    557 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kdmflush/253:1]
    570 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/0:4-ata_sff]
    582 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfsalloc]
    583 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs_mru_cache]
    584 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-buf/dm-0]
    585 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-conv/dm-0]
    586 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-cil/dm-0]
    587 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-reclaim/dm-]
    588 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-eofblocks/d]
    589 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-log/dm-0]
    590 ?        S      0:00  \_ [xfsaild/dm-0]
    792 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-buf/sda1]
    793 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-conv/sda1]
    794 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-cil/sda1]
    795 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-reclaim/sda]
    796 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-eofblocks/s]
    797 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xfs-log/sda1]
    798 ?        S      0:00  \_ [xfsaild/sda1]
    828 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [rpciod]
    829 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [kworker/u3:0]
    831 ?        I<     0:00  \_ [xprtiod]
   2798 ?        I      0:00  \_ [kworker/0:5-events]
      1 ?        Ss     0:03 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --switched-root --system -
    687 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-journald
    727 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-udevd
    820 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/bin/rpcbind -w -f
    824 ?        S<sl   0:00 /sbin/auditd
    826 ?        S<     0:00  \_ /usr/sbin/sedispatch
    853 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/bin/lsmd -d
    854 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-machined
    855 ?        Ssl    0:02 /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --
    856 ?        Ss     0:00 avahi-daemon: running [linux.local]
    900 ?        S      0:00  \_ avahi-daemon: chroot helper
    859 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/udisks2/udisksd
    864 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/sbin/smartd -n -q never
    866 ?        SNsl   0:00 /usr/libexec/rtkit-daemon
    867 ?        Ssl    0:05 /usr/lib/polkit-1/polkitd --no-debug
    868 ?        SNs    0:00 /usr/sbin/alsactl -s -n 19 -c -E ALSA_CONFIG_PATH=/
    869 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/sbin/sssd -i --logger=files
    901 ?        S      0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/sssd/sssd_be --domain implicit_fil
    908 ?        S      0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/sssd/sssd_nss --uid 0 --gid 0 --lo
    906 ?        S      0:00 /bin/bash /usr/sbin/ksmtuned
   3204 ?        S      0:00  \_ sleep 60
    914 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-logind
    915 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/accounts-daemon
    928 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/sbin/ModemManager
    929 ?        Ssl    0:02 /usr/libexec/platform-python -s /usr/sbin/firewalld
    998 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon
   1014 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd -D -oCiphers=aes256-gcm@openssh.com,
   1015 ?        Ssl    0:04 /usr/libexec/platform-python -Es /usr/sbin/tuned -l
   1017 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/sbin/cupsd -l
   1025 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/sbin/gssproxy -D
   1258 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/sbin/rsyslogd -n
   1281 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/sbin/crond -n
   1282 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/sbin/atd -f
   1696 ?        S      0:00 /usr/sbin/dnsmasq --conf-file=/var/lib/libvirt/dnsm
   1699 ?        S      0:00  \_ /usr/sbin/dnsmasq --conf-file=/var/lib/libvirt/
   1856 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/sbin/gdm
   2213 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ gdm-session-worker [pam/gdm-password]
   2258 tty2     Ssl+   0:00      \_ /usr/libexec/gdm-wayland-session --register
   2265 tty2     Sl+    0:00          \_ /usr/libexec/gnome-session-binary
   2332 tty2     Rl+    0:33              \_ /usr/bin/gnome-shell
   2372 tty2     S+     0:00              |   \_ /usr/bin/Xwayland :0 -rootless 
   2391 tty2     Sl     0:00              |   \_ ibus-daemon --xim --panel disab
   2395 tty2     Sl     0:00              |       \_ /usr/libexec/ibus-dconf
   2397 tty2     Sl     0:01              |       \_ /usr/libexec/ibus-extension
   2538 tty2     Sl     0:00              |       \_ /usr/libexec/ibus-engine-si
   2492 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-power
   2493 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-print-notification
   2496 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-rfkill
   2498 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-screensaver-proxy
   2499 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-sharing
   2503 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-sound
   2508 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-xsettings
   2517 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-wacom
   2518 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-smartcard
   2520 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-account
   2549 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-a11y-settings
   2554 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-clipboard
   2558 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-color
   2561 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-datetime
   2562 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-housekeeping
   2564 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-keyboard
   2570 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-media-keys
   2572 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-mouse
   2691 tty2     Sl+    0:02              \_ /usr/bin/gnome-software --gapplicat
   2702 tty2     Sl+    0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/gsd-disk-utility-notif
   2733 tty2     SNl+   0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/tracker-miner-apps
   2736 tty2     SNl+   0:00              \_ /usr/libexec/tracker-miner-fs
   1873 ?        Sl     0:00 /usr/sbin/VBoxService --pidfile /var/run/vboxadd-se
   2030 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/upowerd
   2044 ?        Ssl    0:17 /usr/libexec/packagekitd
   2056 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa
   2118 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/colord
   2226 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --user
   2231 ?        S      0:00  \_ (sd-pam)
   2248 ?        S<sl   0:00  \_ /usr/bin/pulseaudio --daemonize=no --log-target
   2260 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --session --address=system
   2351 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfsd
   2362 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfsd-fuse /run/user/1000/gvfs -f 
   2375 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/at-spi-bus-launcher
   2380 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --config-file=/usr/sha
   2385 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/at-spi2-registryd --use-gnome-sess
   2396 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/xdg-permission-store
   2410 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/ibus-portal
   2422 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gnome-shell-calendar-server
   2430 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/evolution-source-registry
   2438 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/dconf-service
   2451 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-udisks2-volume-monitor
   2456 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-mtp-volume-monitor
   2461 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/goa-daemon
   2463 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-gphoto2-volume-monitor
   2467 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-afc-volume-monitor
   2474 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/gvfs-goa-volume-monitor
   2483 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/goa-identity-service
   2529 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/evolution-calendar-factory
   2630 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/libexec/evolution-calendar-factory-sub
   2659 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/evolution-addressbook-factory
   2675 ?        Sl     0:00  |   \_ /usr/libexec/evolution-addressbook-factory-
   2762 ?        Ssl    0:00  \_ /usr/libexec/tracker-store
   3131 ?        Ssl    0:01  \_ /usr/libexec/gnome-terminal-server
   3136 pts/0    Ss     0:00      \_ bash
   3214 pts/0    R+     0:00          \_ ps afx
   2252 ?        Sl     0:00 /usr/bin/gnome-keyring-daemon --daemonize --login
   2406 tty2     Sl     0:00 /usr/libexec/ibus-x11 --kill-daemon
   2542 ?        Ss     0:00 /usr/libexec/sssd/sssd_kcm --uid 0 --gid 0 --logger
   2610 tty2     Sl+    0:00 /usr/libexec/gsd-printer
   2730 ?        S      0:00 /usr/bin/VBoxClient --clipboard
   2732 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --clipboard
   2750 ?        S      0:00 /usr/bin/VBoxClient --seamless
   2752 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --seamless
   2757 ?        S      0:00 /usr/bin/VBoxClient --draganddrop
   2760 ?        Sl     0:00  \_ /usr/bin/VBoxClient --draganddrop
   2764 ?        S      0:00 /usr/bin/VBoxClient --vmsvga
   2765 ?        S      0:00  \_ [VBoxDRMClient]
   2898 ?        Ssl    0:00 /usr/libexec/fwupd/fwupd
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ hostname -I
10.0.2.15 192.168.56.102 192.168.122.1 
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ ip addr
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: enp0s3: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 08:00:27:37:61:58 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 10.0.2.15/24 brd 10.0.2.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute enp0s3
       valid_lft 86093sec preferred_lft 86093sec
    inet6 fe80::a00:27ff:fe37:6158/64 scope link noprefixroute 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: enp0s8: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 08:00:27:a8:37:59 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.56.102/24 brd 192.168.56.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute enp0s8
       valid_lft 594sec preferred_lft 594sec
    inet6 fe80::d70e:b6d7:5f20:50e4/64 scope link noprefixroute 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
4: virbr0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state DOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:5e:97:11 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.122.1/24 brd 192.168.122.255 scope global virbr0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ ip route show
default via 10.0.2.2 dev enp0s3 proto dhcp metric 100 
10.0.2.0/24 dev enp0s3 proto kernel scope link src 10.0.2.15 metric 100 
192.168.56.0/24 dev enp0s8 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.56.102 metric 101 
192.168.122.0/24 dev virbr0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.122.1 linkdown 
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ cat /etc/resolv.conf
# Generated by NetworkManager
search domain.local
nameserver 10.0.2.3
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ netstat -ntulp
(Not all processes could be identified, non-owned process info
 will not be shown, you would have to be root to see it all.)
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:111             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
tcp        0      0 192.168.122.1:53        0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:631           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
tcp6       0      0 :::111                  :::*                    LISTEN      -                   
tcp6       0      0 :::22                   :::*                    LISTEN      -                   
tcp6       0      0 ::1:631                 :::*                    LISTEN      -                   
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:59117           0.0.0.0:*                           -                   
udp        0      0 192.168.122.1:53        0.0.0.0:*                           -                   
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:67              0.0.0.0:*                           -                   
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:111             0.0.0.0:*                           -                   
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:5353            0.0.0.0:*                           -                   
udp6       0      0 :::56169                :::*                                -                   
udp6       0      0 :::111                  :::*                                -                   
udp6       0      0 :::5353                 :::*                                -                   
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ ping -c 4 1.1.1.1
PING 1.1.1.1 (1.1.1.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 1.1.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=38.8 ms
64 bytes from 1.1.1.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=38.6 ms
64 bytes from 1.1.1.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=38.2 ms
64 bytes from 1.1.1.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=63 time=37.5 ms

--- 1.1.1.1 ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3011ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 37.511/38.255/38.761/0.521 ms
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ dig example.com.

; <<>> DiG 9.11.36-RedHat-9.11.36-2.el8 <<>> example.com.
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 10035
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 65494
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;example.com.           IN  A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
example.com.        6212    IN  A   93.184.216.34

;; Query time: 4 msec
;; SERVER: 10.0.2.3#53(10.0.2.3)
;; WHEN: Sat Feb 26 13:37:07 CST 2022
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 56

[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ 

Privilegios del usuario normal#

[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ getent passwd ${USER}
cent-francisco-alejandro:x:1000:1000:cent-francisco-alejandro:/home/cent-francisco-alejandro:/bin/bash
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ id
uid=1000(cent-francisco-alejandro) gid=1000(cent-francisco-alejandro) groups=1000(cent-francisco-alejandro),10(wheel),974(wireshark) context=unconfined_u:unconfined_r:unconfined_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ groups
cent-francisco-alejandro wheel wireshark
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ sudo -l
Matching Defaults entries for cent-francisco-alejandro on localhost:
    !visiblepw, always_set_home, match_group_by_gid, always_query_group_plugin,
    env_reset, env_keep="COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE KDEDIR LS_COLORS",
    env_keep+="MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE",
    env_keep+="LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES",
    env_keep+="LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE",
    env_keep+="LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY",
    secure_path=/sbin\:/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin

User cent-francisco-alejandro may run the following commands on localhost:
    (ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ sudo -i
[root@localhost ~]# 

Ubicación de las herramientas#

[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ which wireshark tcpdump nmap netcat ngrep dsniff wget curl whois bind-utils net-tools iproute iptables iptables-services iputils traceroute ethtool
/usr/bin/wireshark
/usr/sbin/tcpdump
/usr/bin/nmap
/usr/bin/netcat
/usr/sbin/ngrep
/usr/sbin/dsniff
/usr/bin/wget
/usr/bin/curl
/usr/bin/whois
/usr/bin/which: no bind-utils in (/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/.local/bin:/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin)
/usr/bin/which: no net-tools in (/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/.local/bin:/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin)
/usr/bin/which: no iproute in (/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/.local/bin:/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin)
/usr/sbin/iptables
/usr/bin/which: no iptables-services in (/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/.local/bin:/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin)
/usr/bin/which: no iputils in (/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/.local/bin:/home/cent-francisco-alejandro/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin)
/usr/bin/traceroute
/usr/sbin/ethtool
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$ whereis wireshark tcpdump nmap netcat ngrep dsniff wget curl whois bind-utils net-tools iproute iptables iptables-services iputils traceroute ethtool
wireshark: /usr/bin/wireshark /usr/lib64/wireshark /usr/share/wireshark /usr/share/man/man1/wireshark.1.gz
tcpdump: /usr/sbin/tcpdump /usr/share/man/man8/tcpdump.8.gz
nmap: /usr/bin/nmap /usr/share/nmap /usr/share/man/man1/nmap.1.gz
netcat: /usr/bin/netcat /usr/share/man/man1/netcat.1.gz
ngrep: /usr/sbin/ngrep /usr/share/man/man8/ngrep.8.gz
dsniff: /usr/sbin/dsniff /etc/dsniff /usr/share/man/man8/dsniff.8.gz
wget: /usr/bin/wget /usr/share/man/man1/wget.1.gz /usr/share/info/wget.info.gz
curl: /usr/bin/curl /usr/share/man/man1/curl.1.gz
whois: /usr/bin/whois.md /usr/bin/whois /etc/whois.conf /usr/share/man/man1/whois.1.gz
bind-utils:
net-tools:
iproute:
iptables: /usr/sbin/iptables /usr/libexec/iptables /usr/share/man/man8/iptables.8.gz
iptables-services:
iputils:
traceroute: /usr/bin/traceroute /usr/share/man/man8/traceroute.8.gz
ethtool: /usr/sbin/ethtool /usr/share/man/man8/ethtool.8.gz
[cent-francisco-alejandro@localhost ~]$